The aviation industry has played a vital role in the global economy, but it has also led to environmental challenges. Air traffic growth has resulted in noise and air pollution near airports, as well as contributing to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from air transport are a significant factor in global warming, and other aviation effluents, such as contrails and particulate matter, also impact the climate. While some emissions have a cooling effect, others contribute to the greenhouse effect. Understanding these complex interactions is crucial for mitigating the environmental impact of aviation.